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As of 2023, the SX-165 CCD detector is out of production. Please ask us if you are interested in a used but refurbished and tested instrument.

SX-165 CCD Detector

Single chip, 165 mm diameter, 2048 x 2048 pixels, 1.5 sec read-out time
MarXperts is proud to be distributor (outside the Americas) of the world’s most advanced large area CCD-based X-ray detectors manufactured by Rayonix, LLC, USA.

The SX Series are the only CCD X-ray detectors that are ideal for both synchrotrons and rotating anode X-ray sources. The SX-165 features a round, 165 mm diameter active area, and a versatile, high-resolution CCD chip. The SX-165 is the upgraded version of the very successful marCCD X-ray detector. From macromolecular crystallography to small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the SX-165 is known throughout the world for unsurpassed imaging and excellent reliability. The SX-165 retains the same design and construction as the marCCD, but features a modernized and improved controller, and higher gain. It also has a frameshift mode of readout for time-resolved imaging on the order of milliseconds. The SX-165 can be used with or without the mardtb goniostat.



The SX-165 uses one 4kx4k chip, permanently bonded to a single fiber-optic taper, for simplicity and reliability. The monolithic design features a large, 165mm diameter circular taper imaged on a square CCD chip.


Custom electronics provide extremely low readout noise at high readout speeds. The SX-165 reads the chip from four channels simultaneously, resulting in a 2048x2048 pixel image in 2.5 seconds with less read noise than any comparable detector system.


The CCD chip in the SX-165 is cooled to -70°C and protected inside a sealed vacuum chamber. The resulting dark current, less than 0.01e-/pixel/sec., allows exposures long enough for data collection from any crystal on any X-ray source. The refrigeration system requires only a standard electrical outlet and no cooling water.


The SX-165 is carefully calibrated before delivery. Due to the permanent bond between the fiber-optic taper and the CCD chip, the instrument does not require routine recalibration.


A newly-developed optional mode of data collection with the SX-165 makes taking data frames separated by only milliseconds possible. Frame-shift mode uses part of the CCD chip for imaging and the rest for data storage. After collecting the first image in the sequence, the CCD is triggered to quickly shift a configurable number of pixel rows, exposing fresh rows for the next image. Further triggers can make the CCD shift again and again until the CCD is filled up. It then reads out the entire CCD at the standard rate, and produces a corrected image showing a collage of the separate exposures.
Detector properties
  • On-chip hardware binning - software selectable
  • Phosphor: Gd2O2S:Tb <40 μm thick
  • Closed-circle refrigeration at -80°C
  • CCD sensors are selected for low noise and low number of cosmetic blemishes. All defects are correctable and permanently mapped and corrected by our factory calibration procedure. Fiber optic tapers are low Thorium glass with extra mural absorption (EMA) selected for minimal geometric and shear distortions
Control and Data Acquisition System
  • Proprietary PCI busmaster DMA Controller with kernel level driver
  • Direct transfer of data, in real time, to workstation memory with no involvement of workstation CPU
  • Optically isolated digital input for external trigger of shutter and/or readout
  • Optically isolated digital output as trigger for external shutter controller
  • High current driver circuit for external solenoid shutter
    (24V open pulse, 3V hold).
Technical data
X-ray sensitive surface 165 mm diameter
Number of CCD-chips 1
Pixels per chip 4096 x 4096
No. of on-chip read-out channels 4
Fiber-optic taper demagnification ratio 2.7 : 1
Software selectable image and pixel sizes 2048 x 2048 (80 μm)
1024 x 1024 (160 μm)
512 x 512 (320 μm)
Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) at 8-12 keV up to 0.8
Point spread function FWHM < 100 μm
FW 1% < 300 μm
Gain (electrons per 12 keV X-ray photon) 6 e¯
Read-out noise in standard readout mode < 13 e¯/pixel
Dark current at -70°C ≤ 0.01 e¯/pixel/sec
Full well capacity for 12 keV photons 45.000 photons/pixel
Dynamic range 16 bits
Physical dimensions of detector head  
Height x width x depth 22 x 22 x 34 cm
Weight < 20 kg
Physical dimensions of electronics cabinet  
Height x width x depth 72 x 43 x 64 cm
Weight < 60 kg